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Kamis, 20 Desember 2012

Menyimak Situasi Perdagangan Sapi Di NTB

Nusa Tenggara Barat yang dikenal sebagai salah satu sentra sapi potong di Indonesia yang merupakan pemasok ternak sapi untuk wilayah lainnya seperti Jawa dan Kalimantan. Saat ini iklim usaha ternak sapi mulai kembali menunjukkan gairah, karena harga ternak sapi sudah mulai membaik sejak pemerintah membatasi impor ternak sapi dan daging sapi.  Impor yang bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daging sapi nasional justru telah memberikan dampak negatif terhadap usaha sapi nasional. Pemerintah semestinya selalu mempertimbangkan bahwa ternak sapi juga merupakan sumber pendapatan penting bagi peternak dan petani lainnya.

Kontribusi Provinsi NTB dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan daging sapi nasional, dengan rata-rata pengeluaran sapi potong  sejumlah 16.500 ekor per tahun ke berbagai wilayah di Indonesia. Berdasarkan poptensi tersebut maka dalam program percepatan pencapaian swasembada daging sapi (P2SDS), NTB ditetapkan sebagai salah satu provinsi sumber sapi potong dan sapi bibit di antara 18 provinsi lainnya di Indonesia.  Sebagai bentuk tekad dan komitmennya melalui program “NTB Bumi Sejuta Sapi” pemerintah provinsi NTB merencakan pembangunan  peternakan sapi yang tangguh.

Meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan adanya perubahan pola konsumsi serta selera masyarakat telah menyebabkan konsumsi daging sapi secara nasional cenderung meningkat. Selama ini kebutuhan daging sapi di Indonesia dipenuhi dari tiga sumber yaitu: ternak sapi dan daging sapi lokal, sapi impor, dan daging impor (Hadi dan Ilham, 2000 disitasi oleh Kariyasa 2005).

Potensi Sapi dan Produktivitas Usaha Ternak Sapi di NTB
Populasi ternak sapi di NTB menunjukkan peningkatan selama periode 2006-2010 sebesar 8,4% per tahun, populasi saat ini 683 ribu ekor (Statistik Peternakan, 2010).  Hasil analisis trendmenunjukkan bahwa terjadi laju peningkatan populasi sapi potong sebesar 1,32% per tahun sebagian besar populasinya adalah sapi Bali (1,32%), sedangkan sapi persilangan dan Hissar bervariasi antara 0,57-1,2%  (Priyanti, 2011).

Bangsa sapi potong  di NTB cukup beragam baik breed lokal seperti sapi  Bali dan sapi Hissar; maupun breed eksotik seperti : Simental, Brangus, Limousin dan persilangan di antaranya.  Provinsi dengan dua pulau besar yaitu pulau Lombok dan pulau Sumbawa masing-masing memiliki komposisi populasi masing-masing sekitar 48 persen dan 52 persen dari total populasi.  Beragam sistem pemeliharaan yang dilakukan ekstensif (digembalakan dan dilepas), semi intensif dan intensif (dikandangkan).  Tentu sistem pemeliharaan yang berbeda memiliki potensi berproduksi yang berbeda tergantung pada manajemen pemeliharaan dan ketersediaan pakan. Ini terkait dengan efisiensi yang bisa dilakukan baik efisiensi terhadap penggunaan input produksi (pakan, tenaga kerja, obat-obatan) serta efisiensi terhadap biaya produksi (biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk input-input tersebut)

Proporsi bangsa sapi yang mendominasi adalah sapi Bali, dengan beberapa keunggulan komparatif yang dimiliki, ini terkait dengan potensi produktivitas, reproduksi dan daya adaptasi untuk setiap wilayah di NTB. Daya adaptasi yang baik memudahkan penanganan pada ternak, dengan kondisi lingkungan dan pakan yang tersedia ternak mampu memberikan performan yang stabil pada tingkat produktivitasnya (pertumbuhan dan pekembangan), serta tingkat kesuburannya.  Ini merupakan pertimbangan penting bagi peternak untuk menentukan pilihannya pada bangsa ternak yang akan dipeliharanya (diusahakan).

Peran Ternak Sapi Sebagai Sumber Pendapatan
Peternakan sapi merupakan sumberdaya lokal masyarakat NTB yang tumbuh dan berkembang membudaya dan terbukti memberikan sumbangan besar terhadap kesejahteraaan masyarakat pedesaan jika dibandingkan dengan ternak ruminansia lainnya. Populasi sapi lebih besar dari ruminansia besar lainnya seperti kerbau artinya sapi lebih dominan dipelihara dan diusahakan oleh masyarakat. Penyerapan tenaga kerja relatif besar, melibatkan 0,33 orang per ekor atau 181.856 orang secara keseluruhan (2008).  Pendapatan yang diperoleh dari memelihara seekor sapi tidak hanya pada produksi daging atau anak sapi, tetapi masih ada yang lainnya seperti pemanfaatan tenaganya untuk membajak dan limbah kotorannya yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk pupuk organik.

Ternak Sapi NTB Dalam Perdagangan Nasional
Potensi pasar di luar daerah cukup besar, permintaan sapi potong mencapai 50.000 ekor per tahun.  Ini merupakan peluang besar bagi perdagangan sapi potong nasional, dan NTB sebagai daerah produsen sapi harus berlomba untuk bersaing dengan provinsi lain (produsen sapi) agar secara berkelanjutan dapat menjadi pemasok sapi nasional.  Pengembangan peternakan sapi tidak cukup hanya dengan meningkatkan populasi dengan upaya-upaya pemerintah memberikan bantuan ternak atau modal usaha. Penerapan teknologi sudah harus dimulai agar diperoleh efisiensi produksi dan efisiensi biaya produksi.  Tidak menutup kemungkinan dimasa mendatang permintaan akan terus meningkat sejalan dengan meningkatnya jumlah penduduk, meningkatnya kesejahteraan masyarakat yang mendorong adanya perubahan pola konsumsi pangan.

Usaha suatu komoditi pertanian umumnya berujung pada sistem perdagangan, demikian pula yang dihadapi oleh peternakan sapi terutama usaha usaha ternak rakyat. Sirkulasi perdagangan sapi dimulai dari sistem perdagangan lokal kemudian sampai pada sistem perdagangan nasional bahkan internasional.  Petani atau peternak sebagai produsen akan selalu memasuki sistem tersebut dan menerima pengaruh dari situasi perdagangan nasional dan internasional. Untuk memproduksi seekor sapi peternak harus membeli bibit sapi atau sapi bakalan di pasar lokal.  Harga yang diterima merupakan harga yang berlaku pada saat itu, dengan tingkat harga sesuai  mekanisme pasar setempat dan pengaruh harga dari luar yaitu harga nasional bahkan harga sapi internasional, dan ketika mereka akan menjual produksinya (sapi siap potong atau anak sapi), kembali harus berhadapan pada hal yang sama.

Situasi perdagangan nasional dan internasional memberikan pengaruh yang kuat pada sistem usaha peternakan sapi di daerah.  Pengalaman kita ketika kebutuhan daging sapi meningkat dan belum bisa dipenuhi oleh produk domestik (sapi-sapi dari daerah sentra produksi), maka kebijakan pemerintah saat itu melakukan impor sapi dan daging sapi, dampaknya sangat besar pada peternakan sapi nasional. Harga sapi di ibukota dan kota-kota besar lainnya turun, sehingga mempengaruhi harga sapi di daerah-daerah produsen sapi.

Sebagai konsekuensi globalisasi ekonomi dunia perdagangan dunia (internasional) bukan lagi merupakan bagian kecil dari ekonomi nasional suatu negara tetapi sebaliknya justru ekonomi nasional merupakan bagian kecil dari ekonomi internasional. Leberalisasi perdagangan secara konseptual telah memberikan tekanan khususnya kepada negara berkembang untuk melakukan serangkaian informasi kebijakan yang semula protektif menjadi lebih market friendly (Oktaviani dkk., 2010).

Komoditi ternak sapi sebagai sumber pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan masyarakat, akan mengalami perubahan-perubahan sejalan dengan perubahan kondisi sosial masyarakat.  Ketika tingkat pendidikan, pengetahuan dan pendapatan masyarakat menjadi lebih baik, perubahan pola konsumsi pangan akan terjadi.  Masyarakat akan memilih pangan yang lebih baik kualitasnya, dan pangan yang berkualitas salah satunya bersumber pada produk peternakan.  Permintaan akan daging, susu dan telur akan meningkat, namun ketika produksi peternakan dalam negeri tidak mampu memenuhi kebutuhan maka tidak menutup kemungkinan terjadi impor.  Maka di sinilah perubahan-perubahan akan terjadi sebagai dampak impor, seperti depresiasi harga.  Sesuai dengan prinsip terjadinya perdagangan internasional yaitu impor akan terjadi jika harga komoditi di luar negeri lebih rendah.

Bagaimana dengan usaha ternak nasional maupun usaha-usaha ternak di daerah? Dampaknya telah dirasakan beberapa waktu silam, harga sapi di NTB turun, peternak tidak dapat berharap mendapatkan keuntungan dari hasil penjualan sapinya.  Jika saja pemerintah tidak segera mengurangi dan membatasi impor maka harga sapi tidak akan bisa kembali pada titik harga normal.

Jika kita perhatikan trend harga sapi 5 tahun terakhir, yaitu lonjakan harga sapi terjadi pada tahun 2008 – 2009, pada saat tingginya permintaan daging nasional dengan harga yang meningkat.  Namun yang terjadi antara tahun 2009 – 2011 harga sapi cenderung stagnan. Semestinya ada kenaikan harga yang mengikuti trendnya.  Sejak  tahun 2009 telah terjadi impor sapi dan daging sapi yang cukup besar untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan nasional, sehingga permintaan sapi asal daerah menurun karena tingkat harga daging sapi nasional saat itu turun, sehingga  sapi-sapi asal NTB hanya dipasarkan di daerah sendiri.  Dapat di lihat pada grafik di bawah ini untuk masing-masing trend

Kita bisa lihat pada gambar grafik berikutnya (Gambar 3.) bahwa tingkat kebutuhan daging sapi nasional terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun, dan pada tahun 2008 justru penyediaan menurun sehingga peluang itu menyebabkan masuknya impor sapi dan daging sapi.  Penyediaan daging dalam negeri cenderung tidak mengalami peningkatan, bahkan terjadi penurunan drastis pada tahun 2008.  Tetapi hal ini tidak mesti disebabkan oleh menurunnya produktivitas ternak sapi nasional.  Kondisi ini bisa terjadi karena adanya impor sehingga harga daging nasional turun yang mengakibatkan lesunya perdagangan sapi nasional.  Peternak, pedagang dan pengusaha sapi antar pulau kurang bergairah dalam bisnis ini.  Namun pada kenyataannya jika keadaan seperti ini dibiarkan maka impor akan terus meningkat dan peternakan sapi nasional akan makin terpuruk.  Tentu pembangunan perekonomian menjadi tidak berarti, karena akan menyebabkan menurunnya pendapatan petani-peternak atau bahkan menyebabkan pengangguran di sektor peternakan.

Penutup
Impor memang tidak bisa dihentikan sama sekali, tetapi sebaiknya ada pembatasan.  Penyediaan kebutuhan daging masyarakat tetap stabil dengan harga yang stabil pula, impor bisa berdampak turunnya harga komoditi yang menguntungkan konsumen tetapi merugikan produsen sapi. Tidak ada impor tentu dampaknya adalah permintaan meningkat (tidak terpenuhi) maka harga komoditi akan meningkat bisa berdampak pada kesejahteraan konsumen tetapi yang memperoleh keuntungan adalah produsen.  Maka harapan kita semua tentunya adanya kesetaraan (keadilan) yang bisa diberikan pemerintah kepada seluruh lapisan masyarakat.

Keadaan ini sebaiknya menjadi pelajaran bagi kita semua, pembangunan perekonomian harus menyeluruh.  Dengan mayoritas penduduk yang memiliki usaha dibidang pertanian harus mendapatkan perlindungan dari kebijakan yang mengatur, demikian pula dengan masyarakat lainnya sebagai konsumen pangan (produk-produk pertanian).  Gairah usaha di bidang pertanian akan baik jika sistem pemasarannya berjalan dengan baik dan dapat memberikan keuntungan pada berbagai pihak. Tidak cukup hanya dengan upaya peningkatan produksi dan produktivitas, karena komoditi pertanian pada umumnya sangat rentan terhadap kuantitas produksi yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan harga (fluktuasi harga).  Ingat bahwa ketika produk melimpah dan permintaan tetap maka harga akan turun.  Bagaimana upaya agar distribusi produksi merata dari waktu ke waktu sehingga dapat terjaga kestabilan harga.  Teknologi dibutuhkan tidak hanya saat suatu komoditas diproduksi, tetapi penanganan pasca panen, sampai pada pemasarannya masih ada teknologi yang mengawalnya.  Efisiensi harus sudah mulai menjadi pertimbangan penting mengingat persaingan produk-produk pertanian dalam era globalisasi perdagangan dunia akan mengancam di masa mendatang.

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